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Review

Brazilian Theraphosidae: a toxicological point of view

Keven Wender Rodrigues Macedo1, Lucas Jeferson de Lima Costa1, Jéssica Oliveira de Souza1, Isadora Alves de Vasconcelos1, Jessica Schneider de Castro1, Carlos José Correia de Santana1,2, Ana Carolina Martins Magalhães1, Mariana de Souza Castro1,2, Osmindo Rodrigues Pires Júnior1 [ + show more ]

J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis, 2021, 27:e20210004
Received: 18 January 2021 | Accepted: 8 April 2021 | Published online: 22 November 2021
Collection: Arthropods: venoms and biology
https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-2021-0004

Abstract

The Theraphosidae family includes the largest number of species of the Mygalomorphae infraorder, with hundreds of species currently catalogued. However, there is a huge lack on physiologic and even ecologic information available, especially in Brazil, which is the most biodiverse country in the world. Over the years, spiders have been presented as a source of multiple biologically active compounds with basic roles, such as primary defense against pathogenic microorganisms or modulation of metabolic pathways and as specialized hunters. Spider venoms also evolved in order to enable the capture of prey by interaction with a diversity of molecular targets of interest, raising their pharmaceutical potential for the development of new drugs. Among the activities found in compounds isolated from venoms and hemocytes of Brazilian Theraphosidae there are antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antitumoral, as well as properties related to proteinase action and neuromuscular blockage modulated by ionic voltage-gated channel interaction. These characteristics are present in different species from multiple genera, which is strong evidence of the important role in spider survival. The present review aims to compile the main results of studies from the last decades on Brazilian Theraphosidae with special focus on results obtained with the crude venom or compounds isolated from both venom and hemocytes, and their physiological and chemical characterization.

 

Keywords: Brazilian Theraphosidae; Crude venom; Hemocytes; Biological active compounds; Spiders.

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